To Be a Master Chef, You Must Use Master Chef

Cooking is a meticulous activity. Some people are chefs by trade, while some are classically trained. However they got there, there is one constant that remains true for all chefs. They’re only as good as their cookware. Chefs and cooks need to have only the best at their disposal in order to produce a great meal. For some, it becomes a disservice when they buy, without so much as a reason, any kind of cookware. Usually the first thing they see is what they buy. This may not be the best choice. Buying cookware as a gift is also a dangerous proposition. However, you can’t go wrong with Master Chef cookware. What makes it better than the other brands is its ability to evenly cook the food.

Whether you’re cooking on high or low heat, the food must be cooked through and through on an even keel. Without it, you’ll have food that isn’t pleasing to the palate. Master Chef cookware also provides technology that heats up the pan quicker than other pans. This is crucial, especially if you look to cook something on last minute notice.

For years, it has worked to produce some of the finest cookware for the public and they one of the most popular brands today. Whether you need to sauté vegetables, grill some meat, or boil water for pasta, you should be able to find Master Chef cookware that is perfect for your needs. Don’t eat uneven tasting food anymore and buy Master Chef today.

When Death Is Big News – Digging Up Story Angles in Your Business

Coffins are bigger and are being buried vertically to save space. People can now design their own custom coffin. And for some, ceremonies and wakes are now event managed, pre-planned, designer “life celebrations”.

If you’re in the funeral business, these industry trends and facts may be just part and parcel of the job, but to others, they make for quirky news stories that the media love. So what is it about your industry that is newsworthy? It might be worth sitting down with pen in hand and brainstorming the facts and trends that are taking off in your field. Need some more examples to help get you thinking?

How about the evolution of the humble kid’s birthday party? Oh how far things have come since “pin the tail on the donkey” and “musical chairs”. These days, kids parties are competitive and for some parents, can almost be as elaborate to plan as weddings! Enter the kids “spa party” where finger and toe nails are painted – not faces. Or flower arranging – not drawing, and of course the hit trend of kids cooking classes for all the budding junior masterchefs.

So think back to how things were run in your business 10 years ago and ask yourself these 5 questions to unlock a story idea:

  1. how has your business changed over the years and why? What trends are you seeing?
  2. have your customers changed- are they younger, older, buying online?
  3. what new things are your customers looking for? What have they rejected that once was a bestseller?
  4. has demand increased for a certain product or service?
  5. what’s the strangest request or most impressive business deal you’ve had?

Masterchef – Premier Cookware

Cooking is a delicate art and one that requires a lot of care and attention. If you find that you’re not very good at it, the problem may not be you or your ability. In some cases, this is far from the truth. The fact of the matter is, you’re only as good as the cookware that you cook with and if you buy the first thing you see in the store, you could be getting something that is substandard in quality. What you’re looking for in cookware is even cooking, non-stick quality, quick heating, and durable equipment. It’s no wonder they made a television show out of it.

Masterchef has been known as one of the premier cookware companies ever. They are a line produced by the Tefal company, which has produced the finest cookware today. You simply can’t go wrong with any kind of Masterchef cookware.

You can buy it for yourself or you can buy it as a gift for a friend’s wedding, but it you did that, you wouldn’t get to experience it for yourself, which would essentially rob you of that joy. You can find several types of Masterchef cookware at your disposal.

It doesn’t matter whether you’re a baker, griller or sautee master, there’s a Masterchef cookware for you. You don’t need to be bothered by the other cookware out there. None will compare to what you can get with Masterchef. If you’ve seen the show, you’ve undoubtedly seen the chefs that go on there. Part of their success wasn’t because many of them were classically trained. Most of them got that way because of the cookware they used.

More Lessons From MasterChef – Can You Take the Heat?

As the saying goes, “If you can’t take the heat get out of the kitchen”. Once again MasterChef has served up some great life lessons. Last year I wrote about the great leadership, coaching and mentoring we can learn from MasterChef. Again Garry, George, Matt and the other guest chefs showed us how to excel in this area of leadership.

On this occasion, I want to comment on ‘Resilience’ and dealing with setbacks and challenges, and how MasterChef gave us a window into how people handle stress and demanding situations. The time pressures and increasingly difficult tasks set for the contestants showed us how well they were able to manage themselves under pressure and produce the goods. You could often see the demands of a given situation getting to a number of the contestants. It was unrelenting at times. Those who were able to hold it together and ‘manage’ themselves on every level when under added strain performed better. The constant practice enhanced their skills for sure, but it also taught them how to deal with pressure which is just as important. Prior to the final episode, we saw Adam, Claire and Callum put under pressure and it was Adam and Callum who held it together better than Claire. Claire is an extremely talented cook but got rattled more than the others thus affecting her performance. Unlike Jonathon who survived eight out of nine elimination challenges, Claire had only been in one before and you could tell. She wasn’t ready for it.

Luckily for the MasterChef contestants they were only subjected to this for about three and a half months. Working chefs are required to take the ‘heat’ everyday albeit in environments they can control. This got me thinking about those professions where every action and the outcomes of those actions are scrutinised every day, placing pressure on those to perform at their best. Professional Chefs and Sports People, Air Traffic Controllers and Surgeons come to mind and I am sure there are several others. With the exception of weather for both the Air Traffic Controllers and some Professional Sports People, for the best part, all of these professions allow their people to work in environments they can directly control and influence.

Sales people also have the scrutiny of performance in common with these professions however, they are often working in environments that are not of their own making or design. They need to be able to deal with, and adapt to things outside of their control, i.e variable conditions and new environments, meeting new people, going to new places, uncovering new issues; variables of many kinds. And unlike recipes, which if executed correctly should turn out like they were intended, sales people are often presented with the ‘Mystery Box’ (same ingredients different outcomes) on a daily basis several times a day. They have to be able to think on their feet, and create outcomes their clients need and want. They need to know how this goes with this to that.

How do they handle the stress? How do they develop their resilience to perform at higher and higher standards every day without cracking? How do they pay attention and make sure every client feels like they are special and important when you have listened to 5-25 people already that day?

As sales people, our actions are assessed by ourselves, our managers and our clients. We deal with acceptance and rejection of our offering every day. Our activities are tracked and mapped. There are league tables, etc.

Any self respecting, self managed, self aware sales person would be able to tell you where they are at each day. They will also tell you that they have learned not to take ‘No’ as personal rejection – that’s a fatal mistake made by many a new sales person. Selling is the ultimate ‘thinking on your feet’ and ‘doing’ job. Like athletes, we need to be continually exercising and getting fitter, developing our skills, knowledge and mindset all at the same time.

Why don’t we teach ‘How to Build Resilience and a Healthy Mindset’?

A healthy mindset is just as, if not more, important as product knowledge and selling skills. However, most businesses usually only train their people in business skills, product knowledge and processes. What we need to do is help people become more emotionally aware, intelligent and resilient in a number of ways. We need to work with the whole person and provide people with access to a range of tools, processes and techniques which give them insight and teach them how to manage their emotions. We need to teach people how to develop healthy and resilient attitudes so they can take the heat and really excel.

We can’t all go on MasterChef to have our resilience and cooking skills tested, nor do all of us have the opportunity to be elite athletes and learn what it is like to work under obvious performance pressure however, we can learn how to develop resilience every day in small ways.

Higher performers, unlike many other people, have searched for and found tools, processes and techniques that help them develop strategies to enhance their self awareness and emotional resilience, and allow them to make the most of their capabilities and the situations they find themselves in on a daily basis.

Developing a Healthy and Resilient Attitude

The first step to becoming more emotionally aware, healthy and resilient is the acknowledgment that there is room for improvement and taking the time to learn more about yourself. It’s about honest, constructive feedback and learning not to take things personally. That is what MasterChef is all about – continuous self improvement and self awareness. That’s what MasterSelling is about!

Next week we will look at some of the tools, behaviours and attitudes that help build self awareness, health and emotional resilience. If you want further information about this, please contact us directly.

Thanks to MasterChef for another excellent season – truly inspiring stuff!

Finally, Mary Anne Radmacher’s words sum up for me and probably many sales people and entrepreneurs our lot: “Courage doesn’t always roar. Sometimes courage is the little voice at the end of the day that says ‘I’ll try again tomorrow’.”

Remember everybody lives by selling something.

Web Content Writing Tips From Masterchef Kitchen

Web content writing is like cooking. If you prepare web content with right flavours and in right proportions you can make your clients feel satisfied. Those who are in content writing jobs have a lot to learn from kitchen. People eat with their palates. People eat with their eyes as well. Same goes true for content writing. Whatever you write, be it web content, articles, blog posts, banners or ad copy, should appeal to both taste and eyes of a web reader.

Content writers have a good lesson to learn from Masterchef Australia, the greatest cookery reality show on Star World. Masterchef Australia 2011 had an elimination episode where two skilled cooks, Kate Bracks and Billy Law were competing against each other. Both of them were asked to reproduce a dish. Billy’s dish had all ingredients intact; it was filled with the right ingredients and was brilliant in presentation. But it lacked flavours. Kate’s presentation was ordinary compared to Billy’s; but her dish was brimming with flavours.

Here comes the million dollar question: if the choice is between presentation and flavours, what do people choose? Masterchef Australia’s judging panel chose flavour over presentation. The web content you prepare might have all the data in place, filled with information and statistics. But will your clients vote for it if your copy lacks flavour? Chances, I would say, are very thin.

How to create great flavours

Flavour is a tricky word. People are misled to believe that having all ingredients in web content means having good flavours. Great flavours are produced when right ingredients are mixed in right proportions. The fact that you have plated everything in your copy doesn’t guarantee successful copy.

Here are a few tricks to produce web content with appealing flavours

Pay attention to requirements: The most important step is to pay close attention to the client brief. Different kinds of writing demand different kinds of flavours. The words and ideas you use for web content might be different from the ones you use for a case study or brochure writing. Choose your flavours with care.

Maintain keyword balance: Keywords can enhance your writing; they can spoil your writing as well. Choose the right key words and use them in the right ratio. Keywords are like garlic. If chosen wisely and proportionately they carry health and flavour. If used excessively, it can drive people from a mile away.

Balance your words: Having a great vocabulary doesn’t equate to quality writing. To enhance your content writing skills, you should learn to choose appropriate words, avoid repetition and maintain logical flow.

Try the new: Creating flavours requires courage to try new things. You should be confident enough to mix your ideas, bring in new concepts and imageries and plate them in a likeable fashion. Many a time people go for the old not just because they like it. People are compelled to go for the old because they are not being offered new things. Novelty is a key ingredient to create flavours for content writing.

Do not overload information: Information is the backbone of any web content writing. Data you use should be credible, verifiable and devoid of factual errors. A dish plated with excessive cheese or spices can be a turn off for a seasoned food lover. Likewise articles or web content loaded with data, numbers or statistics may scare a reader off. Pick information wisely and use it without losing the symmetry of writing.

Keep it fresh and serve it hot: An important factor in producing and sustaining flavours is freshness. Use fresh, updated and contemporary data. Outdated information and banal usages are to be carefully avoided. Those who are in content writing profession need to keep their eyes and ears open all the time to receive new and interesting information.

Web content prepared this way can induce flavours that will get you new clients and keep your old ones happy.

The Old Bakery – Kingsbridge, Devon

If you dream of eating great food that reminds you of sunnier places, how do Roasted feta with peppers, dates and black cardamom or Cappuccino creme brulee, cinnamon and star anise milk and spiced doughnuts sound to you? Giorgio Kostas of The Old Bakery in Kingsbridge, Devon is a chef on a mission.

‘My customers are like family’, explains Giorgio. ‘I want to take them to where I grew up in Australia and Greece, with wonderful, fresh food that reflects the best of the season.’

Giorgio knows how to get the best to the table. His childhood was spent between Australia, where his father taught him to hunt and prepare wild boar and Greece where he cannot remember a time when he was not at the stove.

He fell in love with the kitchen in the islands of Greece, working both for the enduring, four-star Steps of Lindos hotel and an upmarket, bustling local restaurant in Thessaloniki. ‘There were a few tables and no menu, we would cook whatever came in fresh that day.’ Simple, delicious.

Cookery had become the passion that Giorgio wanted to master, he came to Bristol to work for renowned Restaurateur and Chef, Barney Haughton. Haughton’s restaurants Quartier Vert and Bordeaux Quay continue to garner national and local attention for their commitment to impeccably sourced organic produce and intelligent menus.

During that time, Giorgio cooked regularly with Barney’s team for Prince Charles and his guests at Highgrove. ‘What a fantastic kitchen’, Giorgio remembers ‘a really great place to cook using organic ingredients from the estate and these beautiful copper pans dating back to King George’.

Having met his wife, Juliette, the newly-weds moved to Devon where Giorgio soon became Head Chef at the well loved White Hart in Modbury. Eventually, they were ready to find their own place in the distinctive market town of Kingsbridge. ‘Juliette’s family is near and once we saw Kingsbridge, we knew our restaurant was going to be here too’, he says.

Giorgio’s restaurant, The Old Bakery, opened its doors in the spring of 2008. So how does he describe it? ‘We make everything ourselves, from the bread to the sausages to curing the bacon, everything is fresh. You can come for an incredible breakfast, or in the winter months for lunch and dinner we like to serve a variety of beautiful, small dishes, like tapas is to encourage people to share food. Our regular customers often don’t ask for a menu, we just cook them something special.’

Giorgio has a good team around him, his Sous Chef James Gordon Featherstone, is working his way through BBC 2’s Masterchef The Professional heats, the wine list is chosen by Master of Wine, Liam Steevenson with an emphasis small producers from

the Old World and Giorgio’s wife Juliette has made The Old Bakery a place you remember. They offer a fine dining menu on special nights like Valentine’s Day and throughout the summer months. With dishes like Hand dived scallops, fried quails eggs, puy lentils and pickled pears, Roasted wood pigeon, coffee and date purée with almonds and a Dark chocolate and walnut tart with beetroot ice cream, it’s easy to see why people are raving about it.

So if you want to slip away to a place that reminds you of the sun, where you will feel at home, where the chef makes not only three kinds of bread every day but even the table we are sitting at, The Old Bakery should hit the spot. See you there.

Review of Italian Film ‘Love in the City’ or ‘L’amore in Citta’

Love is the City is an anthology film of six segments badly assembled. There is a theme of love that underlies each segment in different and unique ways, but there is no pattern or connection that makes this ‘love’ representative of love in Italy. Without a unifying structure, we feel like poor Daffy Duck from Duck Amuck, constantly subjected to the film’s inexplicably changing tones. We give up ultimately, disappointed and spurned.

This movie could’ve left its happier, lighter moments for the first half, and the bleak, poignant moments for the second. Or vice versa. Its abandonment of an overall rhythm makes it damningly ineffectual. One of the film’s directors (and these are major Italian directors whose best films have been regarded among the finest in world cinema) apprises us seconds before first the segment begins, that ‘we should not be expecting the generic Hollywood style of representation. This movie shall not rouse our passion like a Marilyn Monroe flick’. I’d rather have switched my DVD to Monroe’s Seven Year Itch and be bewitched with her beauty than watch this. Love in a city is sadly a passionless film, cold and colorless as a whole; it’s a modified version of the proverb ‘Too many cooks spoil the broth’ – here, the six cooks or rather Masterchefs together create no broth!

Instead, each one throws in his flavors, ignoring what the others are making. After the dishes are made, there is a chaos in the kitchen because everybody has created something highly dissimilar from the others: now how shall they serve this to the hungry guests? One of the six ‘Masterchefs’, probably Carlo Lizzani, nervously shows up and tells the guests just how ‘different’ this experience shall be, because the ingredients include non-actors who give first-hand account of their experience. He fingerpoints rival Hollywood offerings, blaming them for being simple, straight and unmemorable. The guests looks on wide-eyed, anticipating something challenging and unique.

Dish number one enters. It’s called ‘Paid Love’, and Carlo Lizzani has prepared it. The name itself suggests that its got something to do with prostitutes. There’s a narrator here who takes his camera to desolate streets at night to film streetwalkers. Many prostitutes play themselves as if they are being interviewed extempore. Vallie is questioned about shoes, Tilde says she takes ten cups of coffee everyday, another talks about being abandoned at a young age. Anna, a harlot with a manly appearance, if filmed at home where we learn ‘she’ll read Mickey Mouse before she goes to bed’. All the subjects occupy the centre of the frame. The bleakness of their existence is captured well. Would’ve been ironic had the interviewer himself used the services of the prostitute at the end, but that’s not what this film intends to show. It remains like a documentary for the fifteen or so minutes it stays on screen.

The next dish is brought out. There is a flurry of excitement among the guests when the name Michelangelo Antonioni is heard. Slowly they see a couple of faces usher in and stand in front of a huge wall. Another narrator introduces them as ‘people who had attempted suicide and were here to share their experience’. Raw stories of unfulfilled love, of deceit are shared by the people, one after the other as they relive their haunting experience. Many unsettling images come up, like when one woman speaks of the moment when she had fainted after plunging into the river, and as she speaks the image of the flowing water is captured as though it’s her that’s floating. It’s an eerie piece all in all.

Dish three is a peppy one by Dinio Risi with waltzing, dancing, swinging, flirting and wall-flowering guys and gals. That’s more than an adequate description for the piece. Dish four soon makes guests quiver with mad excitement as the name ‘Fellini’ is pronounced. This part includes a third-person view of the narrator, a journalist who investigates marriage agencies to learn what people are willing to do to get married. Led by sprightly little boys and girls to Mrs. Cibele’s office, our journalist, after a small talk with her husband, tells Mrs.Cibele about a ‘friend who suffers from a werewolf syndrome and can only be cured if he gets married’. To the journalist’s surprise (there’s no such friend, obviously), Mrs. Cibele agrees to find a girl for his friend and gets him one without any difficulty. Later it’s found that the girl is highly impoverished and is desperate to marry anyone who can take good care of her.

Dish five, the most elaborate one (not in terms of content but rather in terms of duration) deals with an impoverished hapless mother’s love for her child which reunites the two ultimately, inspite of her attempts to abandon him. A haunting score is heard often, as if angels from the heaven above are lamenting this woman’s misery and pathos. But there’s little for us to care for this woman or this child to even bother sympathising with them. Dish six is sexyy, perky and quirky, capturing pretty, glowy busty women from far and up-close, and the never-ceasing dirty male gaze.

Each dish has moments but it is when the six (or seven) ‘Masterchefs’ or directors – Lizzani, Antonioni, Risi, Fellini, duo Zavattini and Masseni and Lattuada – announce ‘That’s a wrap! Thank you for coming to the show’, that the guests (we, obviously) begin wondering “What exactly have you given us?” The sum effect of the six segments is zilch, and that’s what makes Love in The City a devoid-of-director’s-passion fruitless watch.

MasterChef Recipes Make You A Five-Star Chef in Your Kitchen

Many cooking lovers dare not miss a single episode of their favorite reality cookery competition shows like “Top Chef”, “MasterChef” and “Iron Chef”. They want to watch these culinary experts closely as they churn out their signature dishes, before downloading the corresponding MasterChef recipes from the TV show’s website and try them out in their own kitchens.

Few, however, are successful in recreating the dishes in their homes. Most find themselves utterly perplexed that they could not get the dish right even if they faithfully followed the recipe.

Master Chefs explain that this problem is due to the fact that every cook perceives the flavors and aroma of food differently. A perfect dish for a chef may be too bland or too salty or spicy for the homemaker and diner. This is why restaurants – including 5-star establishments – always serve seasonings and other condiments on their tables. Also, every cook prefers to prepare their dishes in a certain way. While the ideal roast for chefs is one with the meat tender and juicy, some homemakers prefer their roasts to be well-done. Because of these two factors, Master Chefs recommend that the homemaker simply make the necessary adjustments to the MasterChef recipes in terms of the seasonings and herbs to be used and the method and duration of cooking.

Be the Master Chef of your own five-star kitchen by recreating or developing a delicious variation of the MasterChef recipes that we have for you below…

Crockpot Chicken Fajitas


2 pounds individually quick-frozen chicken breast tenderloin fillets
1 1.4-ounce package fajita seasonings
2 1/2 cups (1/2 package) frozen-pepper stir-fry
Juice of 1 lime (around 1 1/2 tbsps)
1/2 cup reduced-sodium chicken broth
12 fajita-sized flour tortillas
1 cup reduced-fat shredded cheddar or Monterrey Jack cheese

For Garnish:

Fat-free sour cream
Shredded lettuce
Diced tomato


1) Arrange frozen chicken tenderloin fillets at the bottom of a crock pot.

2) Sprinkle fajita seasonings on top of the chicken and add frozen pepper stir-fry and lime juice.

3) Pour the chicken broth over your chicken. Cover the crock pot and cook on low heat for 6 to 8 hours. Once cooked, put the chicken mixture inside a bowl.

4) Spoon enough chicken mixture into the tortillas and sprinkle with shredded cheese.

5) Garnish your chicken fajitas with sour cream, shredded lettuce and diced tomato.

* * * * *

Baked Chicken And Rice


3 cups water
6 chicken stock cubes
1/2 cube butter or margarine
1 cup uncooked rice
1 small onion, chopped
1/2 green pepper, chopped
1/2 cup celery, chopped
8-10 pieces of chicken


1) Boil water in a Dutch oven. Drop the chicken stock cubes into the water.

2) Except for the chicken, put into the stock and water all of the ingredients. Wait for the rice to be partially cooked.

3) Season the chicken with salt and other seasonings as desired. Arrange the chicken pieces on top of the rice mixture.

4) Bake inside the oven for 1 1/2 hours at 400F.

Masterchef Australia – A Recipe For Life Success?

The new television Series of Masterchef Australia is here. Masterchef Australia was compelling viewing for me last year surprisingly not just for the delicious looking food, wonderful recipe ideas, hints & Tips but also for the ambition and passion of the contestants involved.

Without exception, every one of the Masterchef finalists were successful in other professional careers but had always wanted to pursue a career that involved their passion in life – food.

They all had similar stories to tell, basically that involved them going into careers that they were almost expected to pursue but in which some way or another were never truly fulfilling for them.

They all felt that fear, risk and the expectations of others had prevented them from acting upon their true purpose in life.

It made me think – What makes someone want to give up a successful professional career to pursue a career in cooking under the glare of the Masterchef Australia spotlights where their trials and tribulations, failures and successes are laid bare for the world to see?

Professional cooking is a fast paced, high pressure environment that involves working long hours in uncomfortable surroundings. Masterchef contestants were exposed to these kinds of pressures on a daily basis throughout the series with each of the challenges set becoming progressively harder as the series went on.

The contestants met and overcame these challenges each time and this to me demonstrates perfectly how a persons drive and determination to pursue and achieve their dreams and do something they are passionate about in life can be accomplished no matter what obstacles are placed before them.

Each of the masterchef contestants know in themselves that they will bring more happiness into their lives once they have achieved their goal

Interestingly it wasn’t the most gifted chef that won through in the end, demonstrating that Skill is developed though practice and that makes all the difference because, whilst a “god given talent” may be important, it’s the drive, persistence, determination and self belief that are more important in the end.

So if you have ever felt like there was more that you were put on this earth to do, that life has somehow got in the way of your dreams and ambitions, take some time to think about what you really want to do – and then watch Masterchef Australia to see how some people take steps to make it happen for their dreams.

In order to make progress to where you want to be in your life you have to commit to making change. If you don’t make changes to get to where you really want to be then tomorrow is going to be just the same as yesterday – with the exception of you being a day older and your dream still being just as far away.

If you have a dream, an ambition, a desire or a need in your life – take actions to achieve it.

I can guarantee that there will be just as many Masterchef Australia contestants this year with a burning ambition to fulfill their dreams as last year. I suggest you make the time to watch some Masterchef Australia. It might just be that you will be inspired not simply by the food on show – but by the contestants themselves.

Masterchef – A Quality Cookware

You’ve probably seen the show Master Chef on television and it’s probably one of the most watched shows on all of television. If you watch close enough, you’ll notice that the equipment they use on the show is of the same name. It’s no coincidence, but think about the metaphor and think about its meaning. In the show Master Chef, you have highly trained, highly knowledgeable chefs that battle it out for supremacy. The Masterchef cookware is much in the same vein. You have the best equipment available, which makes you one of the best. It makes sense with this cookware, too.

With Masterchef, what you have is high quality, productive cookware. You can be your own master chef in your own way, in your own kitchen. Because there are plenty of options available with Masterchef cookware, you’ll be able to find the perfect cookware for whatever your specialty is. Grilling food has never been easier, and cooking pasta has become much easier, too.

One of the qualities that make Masterchef great is the non-stick ability. It is truly non-stick, not mostly non-stick. This makes for better cooking and easier clean-up. But where Masterchef makes its money is by providing cookware that allows quick heating and even cooking.

It you’re looking for cookware that will not only last you a long time, and give you what you deserve, then Masterchef is the way to go. Buy it as a good for someone, even if they aren’t a very good cook. You never know, with this cookware, you might turn them into one.